This module is designed to introduce the basic concepts behind the development and management of insecticide resistance in agricultural and horticultural crops. The presentation is targeted to those that may be being exposed to the concept of insecticide resistance for the first time or simply wishing to refresh their knowledge. More detailed information on the factors which influence resistance development and its management will be provided in future modules produced by IRAC International.
The IRAC Nematode Working Group is the most recently established IRAC team. The initial objectives of the team were to investigate the resistance risk of nematicides and to develop a mode of action classification scheme similar to that available for insecticides and acaricides.
Both these objectives have now been completed with the publication of the Nematicide Resistance Risk Statement at the end of 2018 and more recently the release of the Nematicide MoA Classification and corresponding MoA poster in September 2019
The IRAC Mode of Action App in IOS and Android has been updated to include the latest changes to the MoA Classification (Ver. 9.3, June 2019). This incorporates some additional MoA Groups including bio-insecticides. The update also includes some additional features such as an active ingredient search and links to the latest IRAC News on the IRAC website.
The IRAC Mode of Action Working Group have developed a set of 74 slides as a MoA tutorial outlining the major mechanisms of insecticide resistance and, explaining with graphics, MoA by the targeted physiology affected using the broad categories of: Nerve and Muscle, Growth and Development, Respiration, Midgut and Unknown or Non-specific target sites or functions.
In a situation in which running real-world experiments is impractical (or even impossible), computer simulations offer a powerful solution to understand complex problems. This is exactly the case of resistance-evolution prediction: Although fast from an evolutionary perspective, the time and spatial scales involved in this process are simply too large to be dealt with experimentally. The underlying evolutionary processes of resistance development are relatively well known, however. With this knowledge, researchers can build mathematical models to describe and mimic the actual systems. These models can also be calibrated based on real-world cases that have already occurred, improving their precision and accuracy. Read the full paper
A video from CropLife International and the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) that explains the importance of mode of action as the basis for effective and sustainable resistance management to preserve the utility and diversity of available insecticides and acaricides. The video can be viewed in English or watch it in Spanish, Mandarin or Portuguese.
The application of an insecticide to the soil, either as a seed treatment or as a direct application, is designed to either control soil borne insect pests or provide systemic control of pests above the ground. The general principles of resistance management apply to seed and soil treatments, as with foliar applied insecticides, however there are some additional factors that should be considered as outlined the the latest statement from IRAC titled: IRAC International statement on the resistance management considerations of utilizing soil & seed applied insecticides