Outreach Team News
The 57th IRAC International Meeting was held in conjunction with IRAC Japan and IRAC Asia in Kyoto. This incorporated a visit to the Annual Meeting of Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology in Osaka where IRAC presentations were given in a seminar sponsored by the Japan Crop Protection Association on 14th March. Further meetings took place during the week as follows:
- 15th March: Meeting of the IRAC Executive and Crop Protection teams
- 16th March: Seminar at Kyoto university followed in the afternoon by meetings with IRAC Japan
- 17th March: Focus on IRAC Asia with presentations and discussion with various Country Teams
New versions (10.5, March 2023) of the IRAC MoA resources have just been released and posted on the website. The changes include the following updates:
- Group 29: Renamed to “Chordotonal organ nicotinamidase inhibitors”.
- Group 36: A new MoA Group which contains the active Dimpropyridaz, and is named “Chordotonal organ modulators – undefined target site”.
- Dicloromezotiaz, previously, in Appendix 6 (active ingredient pending registration), has been moved to Group 4E, Mesoinics, within Group 4, “Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) competitive modulators”.
- The new peptide, U1-AGTX-Ta1b-QA, has been classified as “Unknown or uncertain MoA – subgroup UNP (peptides of unknown or uncertain MoA)” and has been added to the Classification Scheme, Appendix 6, pending registration.
The updated resources, available for download from the IRAC website, are:
The new Global Resistance Management (GRM) Mode of Action App, released earlier this year by the Resistance Action Committees (IRAC, HRAC FRAC), has just been updated with additional features. The App combines the information on the Resistance Action Committee’s standalone Mode of Action Apps into one application for ease of access by the user. The individual IRAC, FRAC and HRAC Mode of Action Apps are still available and all applications can be downloaded from the Apple App and Google Play stores.
For farmers in Vietnam, the agricultural environment is very dynamic. Changes in weather patterns, consumer behavior, the availability of labor, the availability of crop protection products, and the crop pest patterns, require farmers to adjust their agricultural practices to sustain and improve both crop quantity and quality. Badly adopted cultivation practices can lead to increasing problems with insecticide resistance.
Farmers in Vietnam (VN) are experiencing increasing insecticide resistance, rendering their efforts in crop protection inefficient even though they can choose between more than 1500 different insecticide brands, which represent over 600 different active ingredients. If the offer is so diversified, why are farmers running into trouble? The key question is, how to decide which product to use? Interviews with farmers reveal that most believe that they should rotate different products, for insecticide resistance management (IRM).
This shows that farmers are clearly lacking available, essential IRM guidance.
- For rotation, farmers need to know how to select best-fit products, among dozens of hundreds of available insecticides brands, to use.
- Product rotation should be associated with insect generations and the product’s mode of action (MoA) which is indicated by IRAC group numbers.
- The product MoA should be printed on product labels in a standardized manner, including essential information on IRM, as proposed by IRAC and CropLife International. So far, MoA labelling is still only optional for VN manufacturers.
IRAC VN, in association with CropLife VN, are engaging to help farmers to better manage insecticide resistance in the future and planning to:
- be fully committed to comply with IRAC guidance (MoA icon, IRM statement)
- encourage all VN pesticide manufacturers to implement MoA labelling practice
- engage the VN Government agency to make MoA labelling mandatory
- create online IPM, RM, RAC guidance resources in Vietnamese
- establish train-the-trainer programs together with CropLife VN, government agencies, and other stake holders to increase IRM awareness and practice
IRAC MoA Group 30 insecticides (GABA-gated chloride channel allosteric modulators) are a new class of insecticide chemistry with first registrations in agriculture made during 2018. They represent a valuable resource for the control of insect and mite pests in many agricultural and horticultural markets and therefore it is considered essential to develop IRM guidelines to maintain their effectiveness through sustainable use.
The MoA posters with the chemical structures for insecticides/acaricides and for nematicides and the small MoA brochure (now including nematicides) have been updated to correspond with the latest versions of the IRAC MoA Classification. The documents can be downloaded from the website and printed copies will be available in early 2022. The insecticide/acaricide poster is in English but other language version are in preparation.
The general principles of resistance management apply to seed and soil treatments as with foliar applied insecticides, however there are some additional factors that should be considered. There are limited insecticide modes of action available for use either as soil or seed treatments, therefore, the judicious use of the available modes of action is essential for sustainable control of the insect pests targeted by these applications. The updated IRAC guidelines provide more information.
This advanced module is designed to provide guidance on how to set up a successful resistance management strategy that is sustainable. In addition to technical aspects, this requires a good coordination and collaboration between relevant stakeholders on a community basis. The target audience for this module includes farmers, cooperatives, extension services, distributors, private service providers and public service or researchers in crop protection and plant biotechnology.
A full list of the languages versions available are copied below.
Insecticide Resistance Management:
English, Spanish, Portuguese, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Hindi, French, Italian, Korean, Arabic, Russian, Bahasa (Indonesian), Russian, Tagalog (Philippines), German, Thai, Vietnamese
Insecticide resistance is a long‐standing problem affecting the efficacy and utility of crop protection compounds. Insecticide resistance also impacts the ability and willingness of companies around the world to invest in new crop protection compounds and traits. The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) was formed in 1984 to provide a coordinated response by the crop protection industry to the problem of insecticide resistance. Since its inception, participation in IRAC has grown from a few agrochemical companies in Europe and the US to a much larger group of companies with global representation and an active presence (IRAC Country Groups) involving an even wider array of companies in more than 20 countries. The focus of IRAC has also evolved from that of defining and documenting cases of insecticide resistance to a pro‐active role in addressing insecticide resistance management (IRM) providing an array of informational and educational tools (videos, posters, pamphlets) on insect pests, bioassay methods, insecticide mode of action and resistance management, all publicly available through its website (https://irac-online.org/). A key tool developed by IRAC is the Insecticide Mode of Action (MoA) Classification Scheme, which has evolved from a relatively simple acaricide classification started in 1998 to the far broader scheme that now includes biologics as well as insecticides and acaricides. A separate MoA Classification Scheme has also been recently developed for nematicides. The IRAC MoA Classification Scheme coupled with expanding use of MoA labeling on insecticide and acaricide product labels provides a straightforward means to implement IRM. An overview of the history of IRAC along with some of its notable accomplishments and future directions are reviewed. © 2021 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.