Latest Resistance management for sustainable agriculture and improved public health

The IRAC Mode of Action Classification Online

The definitive, global scheme on the target sites of acaricides and insecticides.

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Modes of action are colour-coded according to the physiological functions affected. This informs the symptomology, speed of action and other properties of the actives therein and not for any resistance management purpose. Base rotations for resistance management on the mode of action number only.

  • Nerve & Muscle Most current insecticides act on nerve and muscle targets. Insecticides that act on these targets are generally fast acting.
  • Growth Insect development is controlled by juvenile hormone and ecdysone, by directly perturbing cuticle formation/deposition or lipid biosynthesis. Such insect growth regulators are generally slow to moderately slow acting.
  • Respiration Several insecticides are known to interfere with mitochondrial respiration by the inhibition of electron transport and/or oxidative phosphorylation. Such insecticides are generally fast to moderately fast acting.
  • Midgut Lepidopteran-specific microbial toxins that are sprayed or expressed in transgenic crop varieties.
  • Protein Suppressors Multiple biological processes govern the accumulation of proteins critical to supporting a wide variety of functions within insects. Protein suppressors act through reduction of specific protein levels in the pest species. Insecticides that act in this manner are generally moderately slow acting.
  • Unknown or Non-Specific Several insecticides are known to affect less well-described target-sites or functions, or to act non-specifically on multiple targets.

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