The general principles of resistance management apply to seed and soil treatments as with foliar applied insecticides, however there are some additional factors that should be considered. There are limited insecticide modes of action available for use either as soil or seed treatments, therefore, the judicious use of the available modes of action is essential for sustainable control of the insect pests targeted by these applications. The updated IRAC guidelines provide more information.
The Chewing Pest WG is a new group for IRAC combining the past Lepidoptera and Coleoptera WGs and complements the Sucking Pest WG. These two key groups sit within the IRAC Crop Protection Team along with the Nematode WG. The team held their first conference call on August 24th 2021, agreed membership and drafted some initial objectives. Further information can be found on the Chewing Pest WG homepage
A full list of the languages available are copied below.
This module is designed to introduce the basic concepts behind the development and management of insecticide resistance in agricultural and horticultural crops. The presentation is targeted to those that may be being exposed to the concept of insecticide resistance for the first time or simply wishing to refresh their knowledge. More detailed information on the factors which influence resistance development and its management will be provided in future modules produced by IRAC International.
The IRAC Nematode Working Group is the most recently established IRAC team. The initial objectives of the team were to investigate the resistance risk of nematicides and to develop a mode of action classification scheme similar to that available for insecticides and acaricides.
Both these objectives have now been completed with the publication of the Nematicide Resistance Risk Statement at the end of 2018 and more recently the release of the Nematicide MoA Classification and corresponding MoA poster in September 2019
CropLife formally confirmed the UPL membership of IRAC International on the 23rd August 2019. With the mergers and acquisitions of various crop protection companies, along with the joining of UPL, this brings the number of IRAC International company members to 11. Good representation across the industry enables IRAC to continue providing a global coordinated response to insect resistance management strategies.
The IRAC Mode of Action App in IOS and Android has been updated to include the latest changes to the MoA Classification (Ver. 9.3, June 2019). This incorporates some additional MoA Groups including bio-insecticides. The update also includes some additional features such as an active ingredient search and links to the latest IRAC News on the IRAC website.
Fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a serious pest in corn, if uncontrolled; this pest can cause a severe damage of the breeding materials of the seed industry at Puerto Rico. One of the tools to manage FAW is the use of insecticides of different modes of action. However, FAW has a tremendous ability to develop resistance. Therefore, monitoring the susceptibility or resistance of FAW to insecticides is critical to establish a successful insecticide resistance management plan (IRM). Monitoring of resistance requires the knowledge of specific methods of insecticide bioassays and analysis of data. Consequently, Michigan State University, IRAC International, and Corteva Agriscience in partnership with PRABIA offered a training course in methods of bioassays for FAW.
The training consisted of classroom training and hands-on laboratory and field experience and reviewed concepts associated with insecticide mode of action and resistance to synthetic compounds. A review of the theory and practice of laboratory bioassays methods for detection of insecticide resistance including leaf disc (IRAC Method No. 007) and insecticide incorporated diet (IRAC Method No. 020) was performed by the participants. In addition, evaluation of the larval mortality was performed by the participants of this training. Probit procedure from SAS and/or POLO program were used to analyze mortality data of the laboratory bioassays, and results of the data analysis were discussed.
The IRAC Executive approved the MoA classification of Tetraniliprole as a new anthranilic diamide in Group 28 (Ryanodine receptor modulator). The IRAC MoA Classification Scheme will be updated accordingly.