A full list of the languages available are copied below.
Cases of Insecticide resistance associated with the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) have been reported since the mid-1960‘s. Resistance to organophosphate, carbamate, cyclodiene organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides are considered as globally widespread.
More recently there have been substantive reports of resistance to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor competitive modulators (IRAC group 4). This group of chemistries has provided effective control of the cotton aphid for many years, but now reports of resistance are increasing.
This module is designed to introduce the basic concepts behind the development and management of insecticide resistance in agricultural and horticultural crops. The presentation is targeted to those that may be being exposed to the concept of insecticide resistance for the first time or simply wishing to refresh their knowledge. More detailed information on the factors which influence resistance development and its management will be provided in future modules produced by IRAC International.
The application of an insecticide to the soil, either as a seed treatment or as a direct application, is designed to either control soil borne insect pests or provide systemic control of pests above the ground. The general principles of resistance management apply to seed and soil treatments, as with foliar applied insecticides, however there are some additional factors that should be considered as outlined the the latest statement from IRAC titled: IRAC International statement on the resistance management considerations of utilizing soil & seed applied insecticides
The new IRAC leaflet has been designed in conjunction with CropLife International providing growers with essential information on insect resistance management and the significant benefits for growers. The leaflet is in English at the moment but an editable version will be available shortly so that it can be translated into the local languages and targeted for specific countries and sectors.
The use of IRAC Group 4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nAChR) has grown considerably since the introduction of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, which was commercialized in 1991. The ten insecticides are classified in four sub-groups 4A-4D. The updated guidelines include a table showing the latest resistance status to the neonicotinoid insecticides.
Chemical insecticides can be applied to conventional and transgenic crops expressing insecticidal proteins. When conducting a pest management program, it is important to take into account IRM considerations for both the transgenic trait (i.e. refuge adoption) and the chemistries being employed (both foliar applied and seed treatments). The IRAC Statement lists the key factors that should be considered when assessing the IRM value of applying the chemical insecticide.