Latest Resistance management for sustainable agriculture and improved public health

Anopheline Mosquitoes

Anopheles spp

Of the approximately 460 species of Anopheline mosquitoes known, over 100 can transmit the plasmodia which cause malaria. However, only 30–40 species commonly transmit malaria to humans. Malaria, transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes, is responsible globally for the deaths of around 1 million people each year. Some species of Anopheles can also act as the vectors of the filariasis causing parasites, Wucheria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. They are also implicated in the transmission of some arboviruses including West Nile Virus, Japanese Encephelitis, O`nyong`nyong and Chikungunya.
Anophelines are found almost globally, but generally do not act as vectors of disease in temperate climates. Adult females lay 50–200 small eggs (about 0.5 × 0.2 mm) per oviposition. Unlike other mosquito species eggs are laid singly and directly on water and are unique in having floats on their sides. They are not resistant to desiccation and hatch within 2–3 days, although hatching may take up to 2–3 weeks in cooler climates. The larvae breathe air through spiracles so must come to the surface frequently and spend most of their time feeding on algae, bacteria and other microorganisms in the surface microlayer. Larvae develop through four stages, or instars, after which they metamorphose into pupae. As with the larvae, pupae must come to the surface frequently to breathe, which they do through a pair of respiratory trumpets. The pupal stage does not feed and after 2-3 days, the dorsal surface splits and an adult mosquito emerges. Anopheles adult mosquitoes feed on nectar and other sources of sugar but females require a blood meal before they can develop eggs. After obtaining a full blood meal, the female will rest for a few days while they digest the blood and their eggs develop. Once the eggs are fully developed, the female will lay them and seeks another meal of blood. This cycle repeats itself until the female dies, normally within a few weeks depending on temperature, humidity, and their ability to successfully find a blood meal.

Key anopheline mosquitoes resources


Title Year Author(s) Publisher
Test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes (Second edition) Global Malaria Programme 2016 Anon. World Health Organisation
Insecticide Resistance and Management Strategies in Urban Ecosystems Vol. 7(1):2. DOI:10.3390/insects7010002. 2016 Zhu F, Lavine L, O’Neal S, Lavine M, Foss C, Walsh D Insects
Detection of G119S ace-1R mutation in field-collected Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes using allele-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (AS-LAMP) method 14:47. DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-0968-9 2015 Badolo A, Bando H, Traoré A, Ko-ketsu M, Guelbeogo WM, Kanuka H, Ranson H, Sagnon N, Fukumoto S Malaria Journal
Distribution and frequency of G119S mutation in ace-1 gene within Anopheles sinensis populations from Guangxi, China 14: 470,. DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-1000-0 2015 Feng X, Yang C, Yang Y, Li J, Lin K, Li M, Qiu X Malaria Journal
Global plan for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors Global Malaria Programme 2012 Anon. World Health Organisation
First Detection of Multiple Knockdown Resistance (kdr)-Like Mutations in Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Using Three New Genotyping Methods in Anopheles sinensis from Guangxi Province, China Vol. 49 (5), pp. 1012-1020. DOI: 10.1603/ME11266 2012 Tan WL, Li CX, Wang ZM, Liu MD, Dong YD, Feng XY, Wu ZM, Guo DX, Xing D, Zhang YM, Wang ZC, Zhao TY Journal of Medical Entomology
Frequency detection of pyrethroid resistance allele in Anopheles sinensis populations by real-time PCR amplification of specific allele (rtPASA) Vol. 87 (1), pp. 54-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2006.06.009 2007 Kim H, Baek JH, Lee W-J, Lee SH Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Mutated sodium channel genes and elevated monooxygenases are found in pyrethroid resistant populations of Sri Lankan malaria vectors Vol. 88 (1), pp. 108-113. DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2006.10.001 2007 Karunaratne SHPP, Hawkes NJ, Perera MDB, Ranson H, Hemingway J Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Detection of the East and West African kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis from Uganda using a new assay based on FRET/Melt Curve analysis Vol.5 (16), DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-16 2006 Verhaeghen K, Van Bortel W,, Roelants P, Backeljau T, Coosemans M Malaria Journal
First report of knockdown mutations in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae from Cameroon Vol. 74 (5), pp. 795-797. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.795 2006 Etang J, Fondjo E, Chandre F, Morlais I, Brengues C, Nwane P, Chouaibou M, Ndjemai H, Simard F The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Laboratory And Field Evaluation Of Household Insecticide Products And Public Health Insecticides Against Vector Mosquitoes And House Flies (Diptera: Culicidae, Muscidae) Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Urban Pests 2005 Zairi J, Lee RW
Molecular evidence for a kdr-like pyrethroid resistance mechanism in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Vol. 17 (2), pp. 138-144 2003 Enayati AA, Vatandoost H, Ladonni H, Townson H, Hemingway J Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Detection of Knockdown Resistance Mutations in Anopheles sacharovi (Diptera: Culicidae) and Genetic Distance with Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) Using cDNA Sequencing of the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Gene Vol. 39 (6), pp. 870-874. DOI: 10.1603/0022-2585-39.6.870 2002 Lüleyap HÜ, Alptekin D, Kasap H, Kasap M Journal of Medical Entomology
Test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vectors, bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides on treated surfaces Report of the WHO Informal Consultation 1998 Anon. World Health Organisation

The information provided is based on literature reviews and as such IRAC cannot guarantee or be held accountable for the accuracy of the reports.

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