Latest Resistance management for sustainable agriculture and improved public health

Citrus red mite

Panonychus citri

The Citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) is an economically important pest of citrus globally. Although citrus is the main host, it can also infest other fruit trees including pome and stone fruits. Adult mites and their nymphs feed on the fruit, leaves and twigs of the host plant and can cause defoliation, discoloration and reduced quality of the fruits. It is thought that the citrus rust mite originates in Asia, but global transportation of plant stock and ornamental citrus plants helps to spread the pest.

The citrus red mite that has a short generation time and high fecundity. These life cycle features combined with the long duration of protection needed to prevent damage to citrus crops often results in prolonged and repeated exposure to insecticides and acaricides. This persistent exposure can and has led to the development of pesticide resistance.

Citrus red mite resistance profile

In several locations the citrus red mite has developed field derived resistance to several classes of insecticide/acaricides. Many reports of resistance have originated from China, Turkey and Iran, however this does not exclude that citrus red mite may have developed resistance in other regions of the world.

Species Distribution Chemical class Mechanisms
Panonychus citri Japan Organophosphates (1B) Unknown
Panonychus citri China Pyrethroids-Pyrethrins (3A) Esterase (metabolic)
Panonychus citri Iran Pyrethroids-Pyrethrins (3A) F1538I (Target site)
Panonychus citri China Avermectins-Milbemycins (6) GST (metabolic)
Panonychus citri Turkey Avermectins-Milbemycins (6) GST (metabolic)
Panonychus citri China Clofentezine-Hexythiazox-Diflovidazin (10A) Unknown
Panonychus citri Turkey Etoxazole (10B) Unknown
Panonychus citri Turkey Organotin miticides (12B) Unknown
Panonychus citri Turkey Tetradifon (12D) Unknown
Panonychus citri Japan Acequinocyl (20B) G126S (Target Site)
Panonychus citri Japan Acequinocyl (20B) A133T (Target Site)
Panonychus citri China Bifenazate (20D) G126S (Target Site)
Panonychus citri Japan Bifenazate (20D) A133T (Target Site)
Panonychus citri Belgium Bifenazate (20D)
Panonychus citri Italy Bifenazate (20D)
Panonychus citri China METI acaricides and insecticides (21A) H92R (target site)
Panonychus citri Iran METI acaricides and insecticides (21A)
Panonychus citri Japan METI acaricides and insecticides (21A)
Panonychus citri China Tetronic and Tetramic acid derivatives (23) Unknown
Panonychus citri Turkey Tetronic and Tetramic acid derivatives (23) Unknown
Panonychus citri China Beta-ketonitrile derivatives (25A) Unknown
Panonychus citri Turkey Compounds of Unknown or Uncertain MoA (UN) Unknown
Panonychus citri Japan Compounds of Unknown or Uncertain MoA (UN) Unknown

Key citrus red mite resources


Title Year Author(s) Publisher
Resistance status and detoxification enzyme activity in ten populations of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae) from Turkey, Crop Protection Vol. 141, 105488 2021 Döker I, Kazak C, Ay R Crop Protection
Molecular and genetic analysis of resistance to METI-I acaricides in Iranian populations of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri, Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology Vol. 164, pg. 73-84 2020 Alavijeh ES, Khajehali J, Snoeck S, Panteleri R, Ghadamyari M, Jonckheere W, Bajda S, et. al. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Monitoring the Resistance of the Citrus Red Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) to Four Acaricides in Different Citrus Orchards in China Volume 113, Issue 2, Pages 918–923, 2020 Pan D, Dou W, Yuan G-R, Zhou Q-H, Wang JJ Pest Management Science
Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Fenpropathrin Resistance Vol 17(8), 1361 2016 Shen X-M, Liao C-Y, Lu X-P, Wang Z, Wang J-J International Jouranal Molecular Sciences
Characterization and functional analysis of a novel glutathione S-transferase gene potentially associated with the abamectin resistance in Panonychus citri (McGregor) Vol. 132, Pg. 72-80. 2016 Liao C-Y, Xia W-K, Feng Y-C, Li G, Liu H, Dou W, Wang J-J Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Molecular characterisation of a sodium channel gene and identification of a Phe1538 to Ile mutation in citrus red mite, Panonychus citri. Vol. 71 (2), pp. 266-277. DOI: 10.1002/ps.3802 2014 Ding TB, Zhong R, Jang XZ, Liao CY, Xia WK, Liu B, Dou W, Wang JJ Pest Management Science
Detecting acaricide resistance in Turkish populations of Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) Vol. 17 No. 4: 30 2012 Döker I, Kazak C Systematic and Applied Acarology
Susceptibility and Activity of Glutathione S-Transferases in Nine Field Populations of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae) to Pyridaben and Azocyclotin Vol 94(2):321-329 2011 Niu J-Z, Liu G-Y, Dou W, Wang J-J Florida Entomologist
Parallel evolution of cytochrome b mediated bifenozate resistance in the citrus red mite Panonychus citri Vol. 20 (1) pg. 135-140. 2011 Van Leeuwen T, Van Nieuwenhuyse P, Vanholme B, Dermauw W, Nauen R Insect Molecular Biology
Monitoring of resistance to spirodiclofen and five other acaricides in Panonychus citri collected from Chinese citrus orchards Vol.66, 9, Pages 1025-1030 2010 Hu J, Wang C, Wang J, You Y, Chen F Pest Management Science
The Change of Susceptibility of Mite Population to Dicofol and Genetic Analysis of Dicofol-Resistance in the Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (McG.) Volume 4, (3) 1979 Inoue K Journal of Pesticide Science
Penetration of 32P-Dimethoate into Organophosphate Resistant and Susceptible Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri McGREGOR (Acarina : Tetranychidae) Vol. 8 (3) pg. 183/190 1973 Hirai K, Miyata T, Saito T Applied Entomology and Zoology

The information provided is based on literature reviews and as such IRAC cannot guarantee or be held accountable for the accuracy of the reports.

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