Latest Resistance management for sustainable agriculture and improved public health

American serpentine leafminer

Liriomyza trifolii

Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) Diptera: Agromyzidae is a leafminer pest native to the New World that has been introduced into many countries in Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania. L. trifolii has a vast host range including vegetables and ornamentals from about 50 genera in several economically important plant families. Females cause punctures for oviposition and feeding that result in a stippled appearance on foliage. However, the most important damage is the mining of leaves by larvae, which can cause leaf drop, and reduction in photosynthesis and growth in the plant.

Multiple generations can occur in tropical and subtropical environments. Each leafminer female can produce several hundred eggs during its life span and lay up to 40 of them per day. Under favorable conditions some Liriomyza species can complete their whole life cycle in a few days. Leafminers prefer high temperatures, during cool weather development rests. Adults are small (<1.7 mm body length) black and yellow flies. The scutellum is bright yellow; face, frons and third antennal segment also bright yellow. Keys for the identification of agromyzid leafminers can be found in Spencer and Steyskal (1986).

Several species of parasitoid species have proved useful at reducing populations of this pest. Yellow sticky cards also reduce adult densities. However, chemical control is commonly used to protect plant foliage from leafminer injury, and very few insecticides are compatible with parasitoids. Insecticide resistance is recognized as a major problem.

American serpentine leafminer resistance profile

Species Distribution Chemical class Mechanisms
Liriomyza trifolii USA Carbamates (1A) Metabolic: Enhanced detoxification by monooxygenases
Liriomyza trifolii Canada, Mauritius, USA Organophosphates (1B) Oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism
Liriomyza trifolii Mauritius Cyclodiene organochlorines (2A) Metabolic
Liriomyza trifolii USA Pyrethroids-Pyrethrins (3A) Oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism
Liriomyza trifolii USA Spinosyns (5) Altered target site resistance: G275E mutation in the α6 subunit of nAChR
Liriomyza trifolii USA Avermectins (6)
Liriomyza trifolii USA Cyromazine (17)


Title Year Author(s) Publisher
Development and Stability of Insecticide Resistance in the Leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) to Cyromazine, Abamectin, and Spinosad Vol. 97(1):112-119, DOI: 10.1603/0022-0493-97.1.112 2004 Ferguson JS Journal of Economic Entomology
Toxicity of avermectins to Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) larvae and adults Vol. 88 (5), pp. 1415-19. DOI: 10.1093/jee/88.5.1415 1995 Cox DL, Remick DM, Lasota JA, Dybas RA Journal of Economic Entomology
Characterization of insecticide resistance in two colonies of Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Vol. 83 (1), pp. 18-26. DOI: 10.1093/jee/83.1.18 1990 Keil CB, Parrella MP Journal of Economic Entomology
Resistance to pyrazophos in serpentine leafminer Liriomyza trifollii (Burges) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Ontario greenhouses Vol. 121 (1) pp. 47-53. DOI: 10.4039/Ent12147-1 1989 Broadbent AB, Pree DJ The Canadian Entomologist
Toxicity of Abamectin to Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Vol. 81 (2), pp. 738-740. DOI: 10.1093/jee/81.2.738 1988 Leibee GL Journal of Economic Entomology
Susceptibility of Liriomyza sativae and L. trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) to Permethrin and Fenvalerate Vol. 80 (6), pp. 1262-66. DOI: 10.1093/jee/80.6.1262 1987 Mason GA, Johnson MW, Tabashnik BE Journal of Economic Entomology
Manual of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) of the United States ARS Agricultural Handbook 638 1986 Spencer KA, Steyskal GC U.S. Department of Agriculture
Method for Monitoring and Establishing Baseline Data for Resistance to Permethrin by Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) Vol. 78 (2), pp. 419-422. DOI: 10.1093/jee/78.2.419 1985 Keil CB, Parrella MP, Morse JG Journal of Economic Entomology
Crop protection through prevention and management - Opportunities for integrated pest management in celery production UF-IFAS-IPM2. pp. 1-4 1979 Poe SL, Strandberg SL University of Florida

The information provided is based on literature reviews and as such IRAC cannot guarantee or be held accountable for the accuracy of the reports.

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