Latest Resistance management for sustainable agriculture and improved public health

Amrasca spp.

Amrasca biguttula biguttula

Known as Indian cotton jassid, Indian cotton leafhopper, green jassid, cotton leafhopper or okra leafhopper, this is a hemipterous pest commonly found in India and that attacks plants of at least 25 species such as potatoes, beans, sorghum, maize, cotton and okra. In cotton, yield losses may be as high as 100-114 kg of fiber per hectare and in sunflowers attack combined with whiteflies may result in losses of 9.2%.

Eggs are yellowish-white, curved and measure 0.73 x 0.24 mm. They are laid inside leaf tissues of okra epidermis. Each female produces 25-34 eggs along its lifespan. Embrionary development takes from 6 to 10 days and nymphs undergo five instars. Initially, nymphs are transparent and become yellowish-green at the end of the stage. Nymphs measure from 0.6 to 2.2 mm long and mean development time is  7 days.

Adults have dark violet eyes and green legs. Wing color varies and are yellowish green during summers and reddish-brown during winter. Two black spots in the head and two in the wings are distinctive characteristics. Adults live from 11 to 16 days, reaching up to 22 days. Females start laying eggs 2-4 days after mating and produce eggs along 4-9 days.

Nymphs and adults are usually found in the abaxial side of leaves and population peaks from June to August. Rainfall is a key mortality factor of nymphs and adults as well as temperatures lower than 29ºC , humidity higher than 78% and photophase shorter than 6.4 hours.

Adults have a short active movement capacity but are easily transported by wind and infested propagation materials.

Symptoms include chlorosis, leaf marginal rolling and ondulation, as well as necrotic areas, dropping and a growth reduction under higher pest pressure.

No natural enemies are known for this pest and cultural practices are important to prevent damage, such as observe the most favorable planting period (April-June in Northern India) and crop rotation with non host plant species

Cotton leafhopper resistance profile

Chemical control with insecticides is an alternative to be taken with precaution as known cases of resistance have been reported in India and Pakistan.

Species Distribution Chemical class Mechanisms
Amrasca biguttula biguttula India Organophosphates (1B) Metabolic resistance: Mixed function oxidase (MFO) activity
Amrasca biguttula biguttula India Cyclodiene organochlorines (2A) Metabolic resistance: Mixed function oxidase (MFO) activity
Amrasca biguttula biguttula India, Pakistan Pyrethroids-Pyrethrins (3A) Metabolic resistance: Mixed function oxidase (MFO) activity
Amrasca biguttula biguttula India Neonicotinoids (4A) Elevated glutathion-S-transferase (GST)

Key cotton leafhopper resources


Title Year Author(s) Publisher
Detoxifying enzyme studies on cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida), resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in field populations in Karnataka, India Vol. 56 (4), pp.346-352 2016 Halappa B, Patil RK Journal of Plant Protection Research
Assessment of the insecticide resistance build up on cotton leafhopper Amrasca bigutulla bigutulla (Ishida) Vol. 2 (11), pp. 4-8 2015 Chaudhari VK, Desai HR, Patel NM International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research
Insecticide resistance in cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) - a review Vol. 14 (2), pp. 283-294 2014 Sagar D, Balikai RA Biochemical and Cellular Archives
Baseline toxicity of chloronicotinyls against cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula, and detection of insecticide resistance Vol. 47 (17), pp. 2095-2105. DOI: 10.1080/03235408.2013.869404 2013 Preetha G, Stanley J, Manoharan T, Kuttalam S Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection
Insecticide resistance in leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (ishida) of major cotton growing districts of karnataka, India Vol. 13 (2), pp. 261-265 2013 Sagar D, Balikai RA, Khadi BM Biochemical and Cellular Archives
Biology and seasonal incidence of leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) (Hemitpera: Cicadellidae) on okra Vol. 18 (2), pp. 149-153 2012 Jayasimha GT, Rachana RR, Manjunatha M, Rajkumar VB Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems
Development and management of insecticide resistance in cotton whitefly and leafhopper – A review Vol. 26 (3), pp. 229-234 2005 Singh R, Jaglan RS Agricultural Reviews
Problems in the control of insecticide-resistant rice plant- and leafhoppers Vol. 26 (3), pp 261-269, DOI: 10.1002/ps.2780260306 1989 Miyata T Pest Management Science

The information provided is based on literature reviews and as such IRAC cannot guarantee or be held accountable for the accuracy of the reports.

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